As an undergraduate student, I was introduced to a poem written by Joseph Malins in 1895, in which he essentially describes the sensibilities of building fences at the top of a cliff in order to prevent falls requiring an ambulance at the bottom of the cliff. It is a poem about prevention. As a marriage therapist, I would add that in order to avoid disaster, one of the most important components of a marriage is building and maintaining a good fence.
The Biggest Threat to Marriage Today
If I were asked what the biggest threat to marriage is today, I would say digital technology, realizing it is a broad and controversial answer. I don’t want to be misunderstood. Technology is not inherently bad. I enjoy all of the conveniences of reading email on my phone, communicating instantly with anyone I want from just about anywhere in the world, and finding information immediately.
However, the most common cases I see in couples therapy right now are those in which: 1) pornography use is hurting the marriage (accessed most often now through technology), and those in which 2) emotional affairs are hurting the marriage (most often perpetuated through technology). Both of these presentations existed before the internet, but they are exponentially more common than they were prior to 1992, when I graduated with a master’s degree in marriage and family therapy.
In short, technology can expose marriages to more intrusive forces. There is so much more availability to corrosive materials and to relationships with people outside the marriage, that people who want to stay in committed relationships need to realize the risks and set intentional boundaries in a boundless world.
This applies to both spouses. I would say that clinically I see more men using pornography and more women having emotional affairs, but there are women who use pornography excessively, and there are definitely men having emotional affairs. I might see more women show up in therapy for emotional affairs because they are perhaps more emotionally invested than their male technological affair partners, but that’s just one guess; I have seen men who are deeply embedded in emotional affairs, ready to dump their marriages to chase the alternative digital connections.
The Problem with Pornography
Wendy Maltz, co-author of The Porn Trap, is another therapist who has been a witness to how technology has disrupted marriages with pornography. She admitted that early in her career, she had sometimes recommended pornography use for couples wanting to address sexual concerns in their marriage, such as low sexual desire. However, she confessed that after her clients began accessing pornography on the internet in a broad and immediate way, she realized how potentially harmful it was.
She pointed out that most internet pornography invites the user to have a relationship with it (the computer porn), rather than with their partners. In this way, it was actually diminishing rather than enhancing her couples’ sexual relationships. Additionally, many spouses feel betrayed and violated by their spouses’ porn use and experience it as an infidelity. In fact, in many cases, the porn becomes preferable to the spouse, entirely fracturing the committed relationship. It can diminish sexual performance and sexual quality as well. She wrote her book in part to clarify the reversal of her opinion in the age of technology, and to try to mitigate some of the effects of pornography. I agree with her observations about how internet pornography is negatively impacting marriages.
The Trouble with Emotional Affairs and Technology
Besides porn, I see a HUGE problem with emotional affairs maintained through digital technology. I remember the very first time a couple came in and the issue was related to cell phone texting. The wife had her old boyfriend’s cell phone number programmed into her cell phone from when she was dating him a few years earlier. After she was married, when she was unhappy with her husband, she would text her old boyfriend. She didn’t see the harm in just finding out how he was doing. The problem was that over time, she began texting him more and more, and since texting is such an immediate form of communication, she had access to him 24/7. I recall recognizing in that moment the reality that technological access had profoundly shifted the playing field for boundaries in marriages. The natural boundaries that existed when I got married that prevented association with previous love interests had disappeared. I accurately predicted that many more marriages would be affected by this lack of boundaries.
Texting is a low investment but high response form of communicating, meaning that it takes very little effort to respond to someone with texting, but it can be perceived as highly responsive. The couple began exchanging texts essentially all day long, and that relationship started to become more real to her than her daily interactions with her husband, which were often colored by the daily stressors and realities of life. In many ways her real life partner couldn’t compete with the seeming emotional responsiveness of her texting boyfriend.
As she disclosed her complaints about her husband, her old boyfriend “validated her feelings,” that she didn’t deserve to be treated like that, and he shallowly declared that he would “never treat her that way.” He continued to look like the hero by doing essentially nothing but moving his fingers, while her husband was trying to meet the demands of real-life experiences that inevitably arise when you live with someone. The comparison was unfair.
The emotions experienced in these low-investment, high response relationships are very real. People also emotionally disclose faster and more deeply with technology than with face-to-face interaction, so the relationships are often characterized by high emotional sharing, and the result is that the people involved experience heightened emotional closeness. The emotions are linked with physiological responses, some of which are very rewarding and powerful. People in emotional affairs experience a dopamine rush just like people in physical affairs, and they become confused by the experiences. Because the emotions are real, the relationships feel “real,” even though they are in fact extremely limited in nature.
Most emotional affairs are relationship fragments—users are in essence taking the best part of the romantic relationship without having to invest or sacrifice like they would to maintain a real long-term committed relationship. When people pursue dopamine-induced emotional affairs over their real relationships, the real relationships become casualties. Let’s say the partner then pursues the emotional affair by developing a real relationship with that person. Over time it becomes as predictably mundane as the original relationship (usually after about 18 months to 2 years). This is often when a new emotional affair is started and the whole cycle repeats, damaging people in the process.
Your Affair is not Unique
As you read this from an outside perspective, I have no doubt that you can see the problem. However, when people are caught up in emotional affairs, they think their emotions mean that their relationships are “special.” Even though I point out to people repeatedly that their affairs are not unique from the other hundreds of affairs I have seen in my practice, they don’t believe me. That’s because they are feeling such powerful emotions. Sometimes they also mistakenly think they aren’t harming the marriage if they aren’t meeting with the affair partner in ongoing face-to-face contact. Ongoing emotional affairs are in many ways more challenging than in dealing with pornography in a marriage. I have seen women openly expressing true love and the desire to run off with an old boyfriend on Facebook while criticizing their husbands for looking at online pornography, which I find confusing and hypocritical.
Many people cling to their emotional affairs and refuse to set boundaries. Many are dishonest about how much the distant but powerful contact with others is hurting the marriage. Many unfairly expect their spouses to be ok with their casual contact with potential affair partners because they “aren’t seeing them in person, so what’s the big deal?”
In the example cited above with the cell phone texting, I asked the wife if she had any boundaries about texting other men. She defensively inquired, “Are you telling me that I have to stop texting my old boyfriend completely even if I know that I’m not going to start a real relationship with him?” I responded, “Neither I nor anyone else can tell you that you have to do anything. However, if your spouse says it is hurting him, and you knowingly engage in behavior that you know is hurting your spouse, it is unreasonable to expect that this won’t chip away at the relationship over time, so you are putting your marriage at risk. The question is, ‘Do you want to put your marriage at risk for divorce or not?’” Sometimes also I have to point this out when a husband thinks his wife should just be okay with his pornography use.
You Must Set Boundaries to Preserve the Marriage
If you want to build a long-term, high quality and stable relationship, build a sturdy fence. Protect your relationship. No one can make you. You can hide just about anything in this day and age at some level, but if you are, you are injuring yourself and your relationship the most. Set boundaries intentionally. In short, if you are engaged in a conversation you wouldn’t want your spouse reading over your shoulder (commonly texting, Facebook, chat rooms, messaging capabilities through your online game, etc.), you are making your relationship vulnerable to eventual decay. It’s a risky choice.
Remember, if you build a fence around your relationship now, you are less likely to need an ambulance later.
An Ambulance Down in the Valley, poem by Joseph Malins (1895).
The Pornography Trap: The Essential Guide to Overcoming Problems Caused by Pornography by Wendy Maltz and Larry Maltz (2009), William Morrow Paperbacks.